Silver in different forms has been widely used in medicine for curing disease and help promote wound healing since early times. Recent advancement in technology has introduced silver nanoparticles into the medical field. As studies of silver nanoparticles improve, several silver nanoparticles medical applications have been developed to help prevent the onset of infection and promote faster wound healing.
The coating of medical implants is one recent silver nanoparticles medical application.
Mechanism of action
Silver allows spontaneous emissions of the ions which are on its surface and these ions are antibacterial. Silver makes sulfhydryl enzymes inactive and makes them compound with amino, imidazole, carboxyl and phosphate groups. It prevents mitosis by annulling DNA replication especially at eukaryote through its characteristics. With a study on P.Aeruginosa, it has been remarked that silver had stopped the replication by attaching to DNAs of bacterium cells which are at phase of logarithmic reproduction. Moreover, silver reacts on proteins which are in propriodentium and bone tissue anth this condition annuls standard milieu for bacterium reproduction. With a study on E.coli, it has been that silver affects cell’s energy metabolism by averting glucose, glycerol, fumarate, succinate, D-lactat and oxidation of D-lactat. With another study, it has also been observed that silver inhibits enzyme of B-galactosidase and in this way it causes necrosis. Namely, silver is both bactericidal and bacteriostatic.
Following the silver coating with Sol-Gel method, it was pro projected that the volume of silver changes by 2mg to 5mg in total. Even in cases that the entire volume of silver rapidly involves the circulation of body, it will not be possible for silver level in blood to reach a toxic level that will cause acute or chronic argyria.
Our Antibacterial Silver Screw System is a pedicle screw, which is used for the treatment of degenerative or pathologic diseases to achieve an artificial stabilization.
Silver, which is the basic logic of the system, has antibacterial characteristics. Among the most effective antibiotics, Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococous Aureus (MRSA) is one of the primary dangerous bacteriums. Studies have shown that silver protects the stabilization systems used in spinal surgery from bacterium such as MRSA (meticillin-resistant Staphylococous aureus-Meticillin is among the most powerful antibiotics) that causes hospital infections with a rate of 91,6%, and even kills these deadly microorganisms.
With purpose of not changing the biomedical characteristics of the system that this procedure will be applied to, and not to create side effects because of the material used, the coating material in microgram weights must be implanted onto the system in micro thickness. Spinal systems which are coated with silver by Nanotechnology methods, are considered a perfect application of the most effective antibacterial actions with complete biomechanical compliance. The length of the operation time in “transpedicular stabilization with screw-rod system”, which has become one of the routine application in spinal surgery, and predisposing causes like wideness of the incision or foreign material applications (titanium screws) carry an increased risk of infection. In case of infection growth antibiotic therapies and the increased hospitalization period increased greatly the cost of treatment. In addition, the available antibiotics may not always be sufficient to solve the problem and in some patients, removing of the implant is necessary with a second operation. The main purpose of this study is coating of the titanium implants used with nanoparticles silver ions and reducing the infection rate and risk.